McLemoreStrong
Genealogy
Strong - McLemore History and Ancestry
First Name:  Last Name: 
[Advanced Search]  [Surnames]
Augustus E. Elliott

Augustus E. Elliott

Male 1838 - 1921  (83 years)

Personal Information    |    Media    |    Sources    |    Event Map    |    All    |    PDF

  • Name Augustus E. Elliott  [1, 2, 3
    Born 18 Apr 1838  Washington, Rappahannock County, Virginia Find all individuals with events at this location  [1, 3, 4
    Gender Male 
    Died 2 Nov 1921  Grand Ledge, Eaton County, Michigan Find all individuals with events at this location  [5, 6
    Buried 7 Nov 1921  Lakeside Cemetery, Odessa Township, Ionia County, Michigan Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Notes 
    • Avis Augusta Smith had the following to say about her grandfather, for whom she was named: "My grandfathers name was Augustus Eliott. He was a redhead and wore a Van Dyke beard. He was part Dutch and was from Culpepper, Virginia. During the Civil War he fought in the Union Army. He had five brothers who fought in the Confederate Army. He was wounded at Gettysburg, and was at a hospital with one of his brothers, who was also wounded. His family was Baptist. They had owned a Tobacco plantation, which was destroyed by the war. After the war, he moved to Michigan. The rest of his family stayed in Virginia. He had a sister who was still well to do after the war. He had been trained as a tobacco auctioneer, but obviously there was little need for that in Michigan. He became a general auctioneer instead."

      Though the essence of Avis's recollections about her grandfather appear to be correct, some of the details seem to have gotten garbled. Although Augustus may have lived at some time in Culpepper, it appears that he actually was born in Washington, Virginia (per his Pension Application). His occupation is also shown as "Farmer" and not auctioneer, though he easily could have been both. He had also moved to Ohio prior to the onset of the war. From the 1850 census, it appears Augustus had only four brothers, not five, although is is possible an another brother might have left home prior to the census. Although I did find the name of a William Elliot in an index of Confederate Pensioners from Rappahannock County, I did not see the name of any of the other brothers. Additionally, since older brother David Elliot had also settled in Ohio prior to the Civil War, it is possible that he might also have enlisted in the Union Army, or stayed neutral.

      Although Augustus was wounded at war, it was in December 1862 in Petersburgh, West Virginia. He was hospitilized, first at Church Hospital and then at the Canal Invalid Hospital, both in Cumberland, Maryland. He was given a medical discharge in April, 1863. This was several months before the Battle of Gettysburg in July of that same year.

      Augustus Elliott was enrolled in the Union Army on the 22nd day of August, 1862 at Fostoria, Ohio in Captain R.A. Kirkwoood's Co I, 123rd Regiment of Ohio Volunteers, to serve for 3 years or during the war. He mustered into service as a private on the 24th day of September 1862 at Thomasville. According to a letter from the War Department, Surgeon General's Office, Record and Pension Division, Washington D.C., dated April 18, 1872 "It appears from the records in this Office, that Augustus E. Elliott, Private, Co I, 123 Regiment, Ohio Volunteers was admitted to General Hospital, Cumberland, MD, January 7, 1863 for treatment for Neuralgia of head, and was discharged the service April 10, 1863, because of Neuraligia of head. No records of Perryville, Md. on file. The Reg't Register commences on June 13, 1863. JJ Woodward Asst Surgeon US Army Vol 29, No 1578"

      What exactly happened to cause his hospitilization and discharge is unclear. And although Augustus applied for a disability pension in 1870, it appears that he did not begin receiving any payments until around 1921. The original Surgeon's Certificate of Disability stated he was unfit to perform the duties of a soldier because of "Neuralgia of head resulting from a severe wound received upon the top of his head about a year ago--previous to enlistment. There is much nervous prostration and deafness." A fellow soldier, Jacob Bowman, thought Augustus was hospitalized after a case of Typhoid fever. It was also noted that his "Heart is very irritable after slight exertion and standing the pulse is 120. Heart(beats?) are clear and regular and apex beat is heard in normal position on 5th ??? space"

      However, on his original Declaration for an Invalid Pension, filed on August 13, 1869, Augustus explained that he was disabled "by having his right hip dislocated in the following manner: on the night of that day Imbodens' Rebel Cavalry having surprised and captured the outposts made a sudden attack on the Camp before it could be alarmed & things were real lively for a time. In trying to get out of the way of flying bullets, cavalry soldiers...being himself unarmed he did it the darkness of night...fall over a precipice some 15 or 20 feet high thusly dislocating his hip. For this he was treated in the General Hospital of Cumberland to the 11th of April 1863 when discharged."

      In another affidavit filed June 20, 1870, Augustus stated that while in the line of duty at Petersburgh, West Virginia, about December 19, 1862, he sustained a dislocation of his right hip from which a permanent disability has resulted. That the injury was received by falling over a precipice some ten or twenty feet high in an attempt to avoid capture by the enemy. He elaborated (and perhaps exaggerated) his story in an affidavit filed August 27, 1870, in which he stated that about December 20, 1862, while on duty guarding commissary store at Petersburgh, W. Va., he, with others, was captured by the rebels, and the following night he escaped; in so doing "he fell down an embankment, about thirty five feet high, spraining and bruising--to such an extent to render him unfit for duty from that time until his discharge. From the effects of said fall he received a rupture in the right side from which he is still suffering. He also alleged heart disease caused by hardships which he endured while escaping." Jacob Dillon of Fostoria, Ohio signed an affidavit stating that he was a member of the same company and regiment and that he was present at the time while Augustus was escaping from the Confederate forces, and actually saw him fall "from a ledge of rocks about twenty feet in Height." Whatever happened to Augustus, it appears he was in very poor physical condition at the time of his discharge. John W. Green testified that he was in the Canal Hospital with Augustus, who had "came to the said hospital going with a cane, and he was very pale and poor, he had a bad ankle and complained of his hip. His privates were badly swollen...I do not know if he was ruptured or not. He complained of soreness in the left side and also complained of heart trouble. It seemed difficult for the Claimant to breathe when he was in a reclining position...I heard Dr. C. C. Perry the hospital doctor say that the claimant was unfit for duty caused by heart disease and as soon as he was able was going to send him home." Alexander McDonel, a friend from Ohio stated that "I have known Augustus Elliott for 30 years and have always known him to be a man of good character and steady habits. I have done work for him. I knew him well in Ohio before he enlisted and I believe he was perfectly sound at the date of his enlistment. I enlisted in 1861 Co H 21 OVI. I saw him again some time early in 1863 when he arrived at the depot on his way home. He was then a living skelton going on a cane."

      According to Family Tree Maker CD 450 County and Family Histories: OH 1780-1970, Disk 5, Seneca County, Liberty Township (C) Broderbund, "August Elliot" was a trustee of the Ebenezer Chapel Society, Bettsville, (which) was incorporated May 19, 1865, along with William Cramer and Henry Cramer (his brother's in law).

      On June 20, 1870 he filed for an invalid pension (Application #157769, Certificate #886142). He was described as 6 feet tall, light complexion, with blue eyes and light hair.

      1870 Census Ohio, Seneca County, Loudon Twp, Fostoria
      #71-70 Augustus E. Elliott 27 M W Farmer $1600 $645 Virginia (Father and Mother of Foreign Birth)
      Sarah A Elliott 32 F W Keeping House Pa.
      Flora J. 6 Oh.
      Ida A. 5 Oh.
      Charles W 2. Oh.
      (They were living next door to Henry and Mary J. CRAMER. Henry was Sarah's older brother)

      1880 Census Odessa, Ionia County, Michigan, ED 103 10 June 1880
      #231-236 Elliott, A.E. W M age 35 Farmer POB Vir(ginia) Parents POB: F Ireland M Va.
      Elliott, Sarah W F age 41 wife Keeping House Pa,Pa,Pa
      Elliott, Flora W F 17 Daughter, at school OH,Va, Pa
      Elliott, Ida W F 15 Daughter, at school OH,Va,Pa
      Elliott, Charles W M 12 Son, at school OH, Va, Pa
      Elliott, Ellen W F 10 Daughter, at school OH, Va, Pa
      Elliott, Clinton W M 7 Son, at school OH, Va, Pa

      Note: Augustus reported his father born in Ireland, whereas his fathers responses to the 1850 and 1860 census indicate he was born in Virginia. One of them must be in error. Perhaps Augustus's grandfather was born in Ireland.

      According to April-June 1999 IONIA COUNTY GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY newsletter, an A.E. Elliott was one of the 84 licensed dog owners in Odessa Township in 1887. He had a male dog, and the tax rate was $1.

      1900 Michigan Census, Ionia County, Odessa Twp, ED 21
      #48-50 Smith, Bert Head W M June 1868 31 M/2 yrs Michigan New York Michigan Dairyman
      Smith, Ida A Wife W F Dec 1867 32 M/2 yrs Ohio Virginia Pennsylvania

      1910 Michigan Census, Eaton County, Oneida Township
      #154-160 Elliott, Agustus Head M W 70 M1 49 years Born VA Parents born GB/Irish Occupation Real Estate
      Elliott, Sarah Wife F W 74 M1 49 years Mother of 7 children, 4 living Born PA, both parents PA
      Elliott, Charles M W 41 single Does not read or write
      #154-161 Smith, William Head M W 42 M1 12 years Born Mi, both parents MI Occupation: Merchant
      Smith, Ida Alice wife F W 43 M1 12 years, Mother of 2 children
      Smith, Avis A D F W 9 years born MI
      Smith, Ilo D F W 3 years born MI

      1920 Census Michigan, Eaton County, Oneida Township 15 Jan 1920
      #357-366 Elliott, Augustus E Head M W 81 M Born VA Parents born Ireland (Irish)
      Elliott, Sarah A Wife F W 86 M Born PA, both parents PA #358-367
      Smith, William B Son in law M W M Born MI, Father born NY, Mother Canada/English Occupation: Merchant, General Store
      Smith, Ida Alice Dtr F W 53
      Smith, Avis A G/D F W 18 years born MI
      Smith, Ilo G/D F W 13 years born MI

      Volume 6, page 468

      Augustus E. Elliott - died Nov. 2, 1921, male, white, married. Age 82y, 7m, 3 d. Died of Myocaridial Deg. Born: Virginia. Retired farmer. Parents: Wm. Elliott , Born VA. and mother, unknown.

      On January 23, 1922, his wife Sarah filed for a Widow's pension from Michigan (Application #1184108, Certificate #913733).

      QUESTION TO RESOLVE

      --Who is Burt Elliot? Among the effects of Avis Smith Benkelman, daughter of Ida Alice Elliott, was a picture taken in Ionia County, MI titled, "Uncle Burt Elliott and wife." Could the Bert Ellliot below be another relative? If so, how?Rebecca Asif of Burnsville, Minnesota is also a great-great-great granddaughter of Augustus Elliott. She received an identical picture from her aunt, and assumes the picture is of Augustus and Sarah, and that my copy must be mislabeled

      There is no record of Augustus having a brother named Burt, nor of Flora, Ida and Ellen have a brother Burt. In the 1891 Ionia City Directory that was on Ancestory.com, I did find a listing for "Eliot, Bert Occ Farm Lab N.E. Smith Bds. Same page 212" There was a 3-8-1947 death record (G-468) for a Bert Elliott but his parents were John R. and Martha Jane (Lamie) Elliott who was born in Sugarin Falls, OH. Bert was b 3-30-1881, and lived at route 2 in Charlotte.

      Another possibility is that, Avis's husband, Ben, had a second cousin named Burton Elliott, born in May 1883 in Cass City. He was the son of David Elliott of Brockford, New York and Matilda Krapf, and a grandson of Frederick Krapf and Dorothea Benkelman. Could this be the "Uncle Bert Elliott" of the picture? It does not seem likely as the picture was taken in an Ionia County photography studio, and not in Tuscola County where his family lived.
    • (Research):

      Census Listings:

      1870 Census
      Ohio, Seneca County, Loudon Twp, PO Fostoria
      Enumerated 16 Jun 1870
      Page 11 Stamped 168
      71-70
      Elliott, Augustus 27 M W Farmer 1600 645 Virg
      Elliott, Sarah A 32 F W Keeping House Pa
      Elliott, Flora J 6 F W Ohio
      Elliott, Ida A 5 F W Ohio
      Elliott, Charles W 2 M W Ohio
      72-71
      Henry and Mary J Cramer

      1880 Census
      Michigan, Ionia County, Odessa Twp
      Enumerated 10 Jun 1880
      Page 25 SD 2 ED 103 Sheet 323 A
      231-236
      Elliott, A E W M 35 Head Farmer Oh Ireland Va
      Elliott, Sarah W F 41 Wf Keeping House Pa Pa Pa
      Elliott, Flora W F 17 Dtr At School Oh Va Pa
      Elliott, Ida W F 15 Dtr At School Oh Va Pa
      Elliott, Charles W M 13 Son At School Oh Va Pa
      Elliott, Ella/Ellen F F 10 Dtr At School Oh Va Pa
      Elliott, Clinton M W 7 Son At School Oh Va Pa
    Person ID I136  Strong Family Tree
    Last Modified 17 Aug 2014 

    Father Joseph Elliott,   b. 1805, Virginia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Aft 1870  (Age 66 years) 
    Mother Elender Kenny,   b. 1802, Virginia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Aft 1880  (Age 79 years) 
    Married 30 Jan 1823  Fauquier County, Virginia Find all individuals with events at this location 
    • Jim Elliott, in December 1999, shared a scan of the following original marriage license for Joseph and Ellen, transcribed below.

      KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS that we Joseph Elliott & George Berryman are held and firmly bound unto James Pleasants, Jr. Esq. Governor of Virginia, in the just and full sum of One Hundred and Fifty Dollars, to which payment well and truly be made, to the said Governor or his successor, we bind ourselves, our and each of our heirs, executors and administrators, jointly and severally, firmly by these presents:--Sealed with our seals and dated this 30 day of Jany 1823. THE CONDITION of the above obligation is such, that whereas a License hath this day been issued by the Clerk of the County Court of Fauquier for the intermarriage of the above bound Joseph Elliott with Elender Kenny, of the said County:--Now if there be no lawful excuse to obstruct said marriage, then the above obligation is to be void, else to remain in full force and virtue.

      Signed sealed and delivered in presence of Joseph Elliott (Seal)

      Wm T. PhillipsGeorge Berryman (Seal)

      The above named George Berryman made oath before me, in my office,on the 30 Jan 1823, that the above named Joseph Elliott and Elender Kenny are each twenty-one years old. Given under my hand the date above. Wm. T Phillips, ???, Fauquier County Court

      Date: Aug 9, 1995 I certify that the document to which this authentication is affixed is a true copy of a record in the Fauquier County Circuit Court, that I have custody of the record and that I am the custodian of the record. Wm D Harris Clerk By: SM Bradley Depurty Clerk

      Marriage Register #4 Pg. 486
    Documents
    Elliott, Joseph and Elender Kenny 1823 Marriage License
    Elliott, Joseph and Elender Kenny 1823 Marriage License
    Fauquier County, Virginia Marriage License
    Family ID F134  Group Sheet,  Family chart

    Family Sarah Ann Cramer,   b. 29 Apr 1834, York County, Pennsylvania Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 2 Feb 1924, Grand Ledge, Eaton County, Michigan Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 89 years) 
    Married 18 Aug 1861  Seneca County, Ohio Find all individuals with events at this location  [2, 7, 8, 9
    • "Augustavus Elliott and Sarah Klemur licensed to marry August 16, 1861 O.C. Zeller, Clk"

      "The State of Ohio, Seneca County, I certify that I this day soleminized the marriage of Augustus Elliott with Sarah A. Cramer. Witness my hand this 18 day of August A.D. 1861 A.B. Roe VDM. Certified and Recorded September 16, 1861 O.C. Zeller, Clk." Recorded in Vol. 5, page 419.

      On his pension application, Augustus states that he and Sarah were married by Rev. Poe of the M.E. Church, Seneca County, Ohio on 18 August 1861. Dean Cramer shows they married in Fostoria.
    Children 
     1. Willie Elliott,   b. 22 Apr 1862, Ohio Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Bef 1870, Ohio Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 7 years)
     2. Flora J. Elliott,   b. 7 Feb 1865, Ohio Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 16 Feb 1962, Michigan Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 97 years)
     3. Ida Alice Elliott,   b. 13 Dec 1866, Seneca County, Ohio Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 27 Jan 1946, Grand Ledge, Eaton County, Michigan Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 79 years)
     4. Charles W. Elliott,   b. 1 Apr 1868, Fostoria, Seneca County, Ohio Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 8 Jul 1939, Grand Ledge, Eaton County, Michigan Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 71 years)
     5. Ella Irene Elliott,   b. 18 Aug 1870, Ohio Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 19 Jun 1953, Ionia County, Michigan Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 82 years)
     6. Infant Son Elliott,   b. 28 Oct 1874, Ohio Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 28 Oct 1874, Ohio Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 0 years)
     7. Clinton Elliott,   b. 12 Sep 1876, Ohio Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 20 Oct 1883, Odessa Township, Ionia County, Michigan Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 7 years)
    Photos
    Elliott, Augustus and wife Sarah Cramer
    Elliott, Augustus and wife Sarah Cramer
    Augustus and Sarah were married in August, 1861, one year before he was enrolled in the Union Army, in the 123rd Regiment of the Ohio Volunteers at Fostoria, Ohio.
    Documents
    Cramer, Sarah Ann and Augustus E. Eiliott 1861 Marriage License
    Cramer, Sarah Ann and Augustus E. Eiliott 1861 Marriage License
    Seneca County, Ohio Marriage Record "Augustavus Elliott and Sarah Klemur licensed to marry August 16, 1861 O.C. Zeller, Clk" The record was certified and recorded on September 10, 1861.
    Headstones
    Elliott Family Plot Marker, Lakeside Cemetery, Odessa Township, Ionia County, Michigan
    Elliott Family Plot Marker, Lakeside Cemetery, Odessa Township, Ionia County, Michigan
    Last Modified 26 Mar 2013 
    Family ID F130  Group Sheet,  Family chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsMarried - 18 Aug 1861 - Seneca County, Ohio Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsDied - 2 Nov 1921 - Grand Ledge, Eaton County, Michigan Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsBuried - 7 Nov 1921 - Lakeside Cemetery, Odessa Township, Ionia County, Michigan Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Maps 
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Photos
    Elliott Home
    Elliott Home
    Labelled simply as "Elliott Home," this was first assumed to be the home that Augustus & Sarah Elliott shared with their daughter and son-in-law, Ida & Bert Smith. The two families shared a home from about 1910 to 1940, which was located at 501 Taylor Street, in Grand Ledge, Mich. The home that was originally at 501 Taylor has since been torn down, but photos of a home that appeared to be at that location in the 1930's differed significantly. Possibly this was their home in Lake Odessa, Michigan? ANY ASSISTANCE IN PINPOINTING THE LOCATION OF THIS HOME, WHICH IS CURRENTLY UNKNOWN, WOULD BE GREATLY APPRECIATED.
    Elliott, Augustus, circa 1900-1920
    Elliott, Augustus, circa 1900-1920
    Husband of Sarah Ann Cramer
    B. 1838 Virginia D. 1921 Michigan
    Augustus was born in Virginia. He followed his older brother David to Ohio as a young man. Augustus enlisted in the Union Army in 1862, a few months after his oldest son was born. He had at least one brother who fought for the Confederacy. Family legend has it that though fighting on opposing sides, he was reunited with a rebel brother at an army hospital during the war. This is thought to be a picture of Augustus, but this has not be absolutely confirmed. The copy handed down to Melinda Strong was labelled on the back "Uncle Burt Elliott," presumably in error. Becky Asif had an identical picture handed down in her family, unlabelled, but was told that it was Augustus Elliott.

    PLEASE HELP US VERIFY THIS PHOTO IF YOU CAN.

    Documents
    Elliott, Augustus E., Civil War Medical Discharge from Company I, 123 Ohio Regiment, Kirkwood's U.S. Volunteer Infantry
    Elliott, Augustus E., Civil War Medical Discharge from Company I, 123 Ohio Regiment, Kirkwood's U.S. Volunteer Infantry
    Certificate of Disability for Discharge from the Army of the United States, Cumberland, Maryland, April 10, 1863
    Elliott, Augustus E., Civil War Disability Pension Application
    Elliott, Augustus E., Civil War Disability Pension Application
    This is the Examining Surgeon's Certificate Augustus Elliott submitted with his disability pension application
    Elliott, Augustus E. Civil War Pension Application, List of Dependants
    Elliott, Augustus E. Civil War Pension Application, List of Dependants
    As part of his pension application, Augustus had to provide information about himself, his marriage, and a list of all children, living or dead
    Elliott, Augustus E., Death Certificate
    Elliott, Augustus E., Death Certificate
    Eaton County, Michigan Death Certificate

    Headstones
    Elliott, Augustus E.
    Elliott, Augustus E.

  • Sources 
    1. [S331] Benkelman, Avis Smith-Interview by Granddaughter Melinda McLemore Strong ca 1976.

    2. [S1484] Ancestry.com - Ohio, Marriages, 1803-1900.

    3. [S308] 1880 United States Federal Census [Ancestry.com database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2005., (1880 U.S. Census Index provided by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints © Copyright 1999 Intellectual Reserve, Inc. All rights reserved. All use is subject to the limited use license and other terms and conditions applicable to this site. Original data: United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Tenth Census of the United States, 1880. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1880. T9, 1,454 rolls. This database is an index to 50 million individuals enumerated in the 1880 United States Federal Census. Census takers recorded many details including each person's name, address, occupation, relationship to the head of household, race, sex, age at last birthday, marital status, place of birth, parentsí place of birth. Additionally, the names of those listed on the population schedule are linked to actual images of the 1880 Federal Census.), Michigan, Ionia County, Odessa Twp Enumerated 10 Jun 1880 Page 25 SD 2 ED 103 Sheet 323 A 231-236 (Reliability: 3).

    4. [S144] 1850 United States Federal Census [Ancestry.com database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: The Generations Network, Inc., 2005, (Original data: United States of America, Bureau of the Census. Seventh Census of the United States, 1850. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1850. M432, 1,009 rolls. This database is an index to individuals enumerated in the 1850 United States Federal Census, the Seventh Census of the United States. Census takers recorded many details including each person's name, age as of the census day, sex, color; birthplace, occupation of males over age fifteen, and more. No relationships were shown between members of a household. Additionally, the names of those listed on the population schedule are linked to actual images of the 1850 Federal Census.).

    5. [S170] Lakeside (Lakewood) Cemetery transcription, Lake Odessa, Odessa Township, Ionia County, Michigan; http://ionia.migenweb.net/cem.htm#Odessa, Shows DOD as 11-7-1921. His tombstone is marked with "Co I , 123rd Ohio Infantry" (Reliability: 3).

    6. [S29] State of Michigan, Department of State, Division of Vital Records, Death Certificate.

    7. [S356] Seneca County Marriage Records, Augustus Elliott to Sara Cramer, Vol 5, page 419.

    8. [S80] Family Archive CD #450 County and Family Histories: Ohio 1780-1970 (c) Broderbund Software, Inc October 31, 1998, Disk 4, Mercer Van Wert Counties, p 154 (Reliability: 3).

    9. [S1539] Cramer, Clarence E. "The Family of Johan Helfer Cramer (Revolutionary War Pension W-2762) With Historical Background", (Preliminary Draft Presented at The John Cramer Family Reunion, Bascom, Ohio, August 22, 1943. Copyright 1944. Clarence Cramer, author, was a resident of Chicago, Illinois, and indicated that his book was prepared 'with the assistance of the Combined Relationship.' Copy of this manuscript is at the Historical Society of York County, 250 East Market Street, York, PA 17403, and a xerox of certain sections in the files of Melinda McLemore Strong, San Antonio, Texas.), p. 57-a (Reliability: 3).